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The latest issue of Sport&EU Review, the association’s official scholarly journal, is now available for download. This is volume 6, issue 2 (November 2014) of the Review and it brings a short commentary on transparency in soccer; a legal case note from the soccer world; the FREE Kick column; a conference report from the Sport&EU conference; and the regularly featured conference announcements, journal calls, resources, and new books.

Please consider contributing to the Sport&EU Review as a publishing author, commentator, manuscript or book reviewer, or becoming otherwise engaged in the production of the journal as it enters in its seventh year of existence. Please send an email to review@sportandeu.com for submissions or inquiries.

You can download the Sport&EU Review, volume 6, issue 2 here.

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The latest issue of Sport&EU Review, the association’s official scholarly journal, is now available for download. This is volume 6, issue 1 (May 2014) of the Review and it includes two legal commentaries, the FREE-kick ¡column, and en extensive list of conference, journal, and opportunity announcements.

Please consider contributing to the Sport&EU Review as a publishing author, commentator, manuscript or book reviewer, or becoming otherwise engaged in the production of the journal as it enters in its sixth year of existence. Send us an email at review@sportandeu.com for submissions or inquiries.

You can download the Sport&EU Review, volume 6, issue 1 by clicking here.

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The latest issue of Sport&EU Review, the association’s official scholarly journal, is now available for download. This is volume 5, issue 2 (November 2013) of the Review and it includes two original articles, two columns, and en extensive list of conference, journal, and opportunity announcements.

Please consider contributing to the Sport&EU Review as a publishing author, commentator, manuscript or book reviewer, or becoming otherwise engaged in the production of the journal as it enters in its sixth year of existence. Send us an email at review@sportandeu.com for submissions or inquiries.

You can download the latest issue of the Sport&EU Review by clicking on this link
.

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Another issue of the Sport&EU Review, our association’s scientific journal, is now aailable online. This is volume 5, issue 1 (May 2013) of the Review. This issue includes an original article on media perceptions of Arab investment in European football, a commentary on the challenges in the Sport Education and Training sector, a forum piece on violence in sport in Europe, the regular FREE Kick, Sport & Citizenship, and Sport & EU in the Caribbean contributions, a review of Geoff Pearson’s book on English football fans, and extensive information about upcoming conferences, events, opportunities, and new book releases.

The journal also carries a section dedicated to the upcoming Sport&EU conference in Istanbul.  Please find a detailed programme (updated today) and the abstracts of the papers that will be presented at the conferences on pages 50-63.

As always, please consider contributing full papers, forum contributions, book reviews, or members announcements for publication in future issues of the Sport&EU Review. A journal is only as good as are its contents. You can find information on submitting material to the Sport&EU Review here.

You can download this issue of the Sport&EU Review by clicking on this link

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Sport&EU in cooperation with the Sport and Citizenship / Sport et Citoyenneté think tank launched a discussion on violence in sport in Europe. In an invited follow-up contribution to Bart Ooijen’s opening piece on the role and actions of the European Commission, Jonas Havelund and Lise Joern bring attention to some of the shortcomings of the existing regulation.  Jonas Havelund and Lise Joern are with the Section of Sport Science at Aarhus University and one of their articles was recently published in Sport&EU Review.

Sport&EU invites authors to contribute complementary or alternative views to this online debate.  The exchange will be reprinted in Sport&EU Review, the official journal of the Association for the Study of Sport and the European Union.

 

Categorisation of supporters: Beyond risk/non-risk

Violence and other offences in connection with sports events have managed to particularly attract the attention of the media, regulators and legislators. Special national legislation has been brought in to attempt to curb the problems in several cases by criminalizing what would otherwise be lawful conduct such as having a beer in a private rented coach on the way to a sporting event. Much of this special legislation has been developed on the conception that offences at sporting events are primarily committed by ‘hooligans’, who are out impossible to reach, and therefore there should be a crackdown on their actions. However, the reality often turns out to be something quite different, leading to individual voices, based on the ECHR, to question whether we are using the right tools to solve the problems.

One of the tools at the European level is increased police cooperation in the form of a pan-European training program for police officers, exchange of information in connection with international matches and the development of a common handbook for police action). The exchange of information with the National Football Information Points requires a standardized vocabulary such as that given in the handbook. However, this standardization is not unproblematic. For example, football supporters are categorized as being either “risk” or “non-risk”. What the risk is here is not specified, however, and the pair of opposites contains as few opportunities to communicate shades as do the colours black and white. But supporter culture is not black and white. It is many-coloured, multi-faceted and full of nuances. It is not one homogeneous group, nor even two groups, which are either “risk” or “non-risk”. There are a numerous of more or less fixed interacting groups with very different values and boundaries of acceptable behaviour – and the more insight you have into these dynamics, the better the possibility of marginalizing the unwanted behaviour. It has been documented many times that the presence of “risk supporters” is not necessarily synonymous with risky situations and escalation, just as the absence of “risk supporters” does not guarantee that an event will develop without the risk of unrest. But the concepts are still used in spite of the unintended consequence that stereotypical perceptions may frame the way that police perceive supporters. This leads to a considerable risk that the outcome will be confrontational, with a negative result to follow (For an overview, see Stott & Pearson (2007). Football ‘Hooliganism’. Policing and the War on the ‘English Disease’. Pennant Books). Risk is dynamic and the result of interaction between different parties, so it requires the ability to decode the “counterparty’s” modes of cultural expression in order to ensure a correct reading of a given situation and its level of risk. If not, there is a risk that actions may be seen as disproportionate and illegitimate, which can help to undermine public confidence in the police and the authorities. It is therefore essential that a greater focus is placed on the need to gain insights into supporter culture and use this knowledge in the drafting of legislation and, not least, in the handling of sports spectators.

As Bart Ooijen mentions in his article “Violence in sport: What does the European Commision do?” the EU Commission underlines the importance of investing more in social and educational measures to prevent violence in sport. In order to strengthening the quality of these measures it is crucial to base them upon research e.g. into supporter culture and its local, national and international cultural differences. Otherwise the measures, despite the intentions, risk missing the target. However, it is vital that there is a focus on how this knowledge can be applied and put into practice by the police and other authorities. And here it is essential that the knowledge-transfer between theory and practice goes both ways. The closer the exchange between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, the stronger the parties involved will be in overcoming the challenges they face.

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Sport&EU in cooperation with the Sport and Citizenship / Sport et Citoyenneté think tank launched a discussion on violence in sport in Europe. In an introductory contribution, Bart Ooijen presents the role and actions of the European Commission in preventing violence from occurring in sport. Bart Ooijen is a policy officer with the Sport Unit of the European Commission.

Sport&EU invites authors to provide complementary or alternative views on the issue in a debate that will be carried online and reprinted in Sport&EU Review, the official journal of the Association for the Study of Sport and the European Union.

 

Violence in sport: What does the European Commission do?

Violence in sport, especially at football grounds, remains a disturbing problem. Violent behaviour can jeopardise the role of sport as a tool to convey positive values.

Progress to avoid violence related to sporting events has been notable since the Heysel drama in 1985. National legislation and security regulations are in place, stadiums have been upgraded, international cooperation on the level of police and clubs has improved and the approach towards supporters has changed positively and is better managed.

Although sport and violence have been associated for a long time with football hooliganism, other professional sport events (for example basketball and ice hockey) are facing similar problems, albeit on a smaller scale. The problem is no longer limited to the most popular professional football leagues in Europe such as those of Italy, the UK, Spain and Germany: other leagues and international competitions and tournaments are also affected.

The Commission is committed to contributing to the prevention of spectator violence. On the basis of Council Decision 2002/348/JHA on security at international football matches, data exchange between National Football Information Points has been developed and further reinforced with UEFA. Exchange of operational information on risk supporters among police services and/or sports authorities has been made possible. The Commission promotes a wide use of the Handbook for Police Cooperation and supports pan-European training for police officers and safety personnel, to prevent and control violence more efficiently.

The European Commission recognises that violence in sport does not only concern spectators in major sport events. Unfortunately violence and various forms of intolerance occur in many modalities on the fields of local amateur clubs, especially in team sports. For example, a study on racism and ethnic discrimination in sport (2010) by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency indicates that racism has become more common in amateur sport and even in youth sport. It involves racist and other discriminatory attitudes such as anti-Semitism, anti-Muslimism and homophobia. The results of one of the projects funded in the framework of the EU’s 2011 Preparatory Action in the field of sport will inform us about sexual violence and harassment in sport. National governments and sport governing bodies have started projects in this field as well, recognising that just as many other sectors in society, sport has to fight against these phenomena.

In its 2011 Communication on sport, the Commission points out the importance of investing more in social and educational measures to prevent violence in sport. It is a fact that law enforcement authorities cannot deal with the underlying causes of violence in sport alone. To ensure that sport keeps its welcoming and enjoyable character and to minimise safety and security risks, all competent agencies should be encouraged to support or implement social and educational measures to prevent violence. By doing so, sport could also function as a positive example for other sectors in society and contribute to the fight against violence in general. The Commission encourages the exchange of best practices in this field.

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Dr Geoff Pearson, a long standing member of the Association and a regular participant in our conference has published his latest book, entitled An Ethnography of English Football Fans: Cans, Cops and Carnivals (Manchester University Press). The book is an account of English football fans who travel home and away with their team. It utilises 16-year’s overt and covert participant observation carried out by the author at three clubs – the England national team, Manchester United and Blackpool. Pearson identifies a distinct sub-culture of supporter – the ‘carnival fan’ – who dominated the travelling support at the clubs observed and this accessible account follows these groups home and abroad, describing their interpretations, motivations and behaviour and challenging a number of the myths about fandom, ‘hooliganism’ and crowd management.

The book identifies that the primary motivation of these fan groups is the creation of a carnival – a period of transgression from the norms of everyday life based upon congregating in groups, alcohol consumption, humour and tomfoolery, and expressions of identity. In achieving these aims, the fan groups were frequently brought into conflict with the football authorities, police and ‘hooligan’ gangs and this account includes explanations of some of the most serious instances of crowd disorder involving English fans in the last two decades. The book also looks at issues such as attitudes to gender, sexuality and race, and the impact of technology and social media upon football fandom.

An Ethnography of English Football Fans will be of value to anyone studying or researching the behaviour of football fans or who is interested in ethnographic modes of enquiry more generally. It will be of particular value to anyone involved in the academic disciplines of policing, criminal justice, sociology, criminology, sports studies and research methods and to practitioners involved in the policing and management of sports crowds across Europe.

Sport&EU has secured a special offer for those members who might be interested in buying this book. To get 20% off the cost price of this book, use Discount Code: OTH311 (Expires 31/12/2012) by emailing your order to orders@nbninternational.com.

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The October 2012 issue of the Sport&EU Review has now been published. The contents of this issue include a wide variety of articles and contributions, including a research article on the factors that contribute to cheating in sports written, a commentary on legal protection of athletes from media attention, and several comments and columns on interesting and topical issues in European and global sport.

The Review can be downloaded free of charge following the link below.

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Download Sport&EU Review Volume 4, Issue, 2 October 2012.

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Sport&EU Review vol. 4, no. 1 for May 2012 has now been published. This issue features, among other, an original article on football fan culture written by Jonas Havelund, Lise Joern and Kristian Rasmussen, a legal commentary on contractual stability in basketball penned by Boaz Sity and a forum contribution on football players’ lifelong education authored by Andy Harvey. Followers of the FREE kick research programme will be interested in Albrecht Sonntag’s report column, while participants of the 7th Sport & EU Conference in Lausanne in June will have a chance to review the conference programme and the accepted abstracts. Rounding up the contents are the regular sections on upcoming conferences and new book releases.

Please consider contributing full papers, forum contributions, book reviews, or members announcements for publication in future issues of the Sport&EU Review. Submissions, as well as comments and general feedback are welcome at review@sportandeu.com.

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Download Sport&EU Review Volume 4, Issue 1

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Sport&EU Review vol. 3, no. 2 for December 2011 has now been published. This number is richer than ever with a leading contribution by Ariel Reck and Daniel Geey on EU law aspects of the third-party ownership rule in English football. We also feature a forum on the ‘Murphy case’ and introduce a new FREE kick section. FREE stands for ‘Football Research in an Enlarged Europe’ and is the surprise winner of the call ‘The Anthropology of European integration’ issued by the 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Development (FP7) for 2011. Rounding off this issue are announcements of upcoming conferences and recently released books, several publication opportunities, and a new book review section.

At the end of this year we are saying goodbye to Samuli Miettinen who stepped down as co-editor of the Review due to increasing burdens in his personal and professional life. Samuli is one of the founding fathers of the Sport&EU Review and was co-editor from its establishment. His contribution to the Review has been invaluable and we would like to thank him deeply for all his kick-ups and efforts devoted to it.

We invite authors to consider contributing full papers, forum contributions, book reviews, or members’ announcements for publication in future issues of the Sport&EU Review; a full call for papers can be found here). Further, please consider applying to be a co-editor of the Review. Members’ contribution is vital to keep the Sport&EU Review running!

As always, contributions, comments and feedback is welcome at review@sportandeu.com.

Download Sport&EU Review Volume 3, Issue 2

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